1. The way we explain and understand disability is important in the context of sport, as it can have different implications for athletes, society, and research.
2. Four models of disability are discussed: the medical model, the UK social model, the social relational model, and the human rights model.
3. The social models of disability have been useful for challenging discrimination and marginalization, producing social and political change, and driving emancipatory types of research. They have also been influential in producing anti-discrimination legislation around the world.
The article "Disability Models: Explaining and Understanding Disability Sport in Different Ways" by Brett Smith and Andrea Bundon provides a critical examination of different models used to understand disability. The authors argue that understanding disability is crucial for anyone working with disabled people in sport, as it can have profound implications for sport, the lives of disabled people, and society at large.
The article begins by outlining four models of disability: the medical model, the UK social model, the social relational model, and the human rights model of disability. The medical model defines disability as any lack of ability resulting from impairment to perform an activity within the range considered normal for a person. The authors note that this model has been heavily criticized for relying on bio-physical assumptions of 'normality' to define disability.
The UK social model asserts that disability is not caused by impairment but by the social barriers (structural and attitudinal) that people with impairments come up against in every arena. In this regard, having a bodily impairment does not equate with disability. Instead, disability is wholly and exclusively social. The authors note that this model has been useful for many disabled people in challenging discrimination and marginalization.
The social relational model sees the individual as interacting with their environment, and impairment and disability as interacting with one another on a continuum. Finally, the human rights model of disability focuses on ensuring that disabled people have equal access to all aspects of life.
Throughout the article, examples of research using these models from sport are noted. However, there are some potential biases in this article. For example, while the authors provide a critical examination of different models used to understand disability, they do not explore counterarguments or present both sides equally.
Additionally, while they note that each way can have profoundly different implications for sport and society at large, they do not provide evidence or examples to support this claim fully. Furthermore, there is no discussion about possible risks associated with each model or how they might be addressed.
Overall, "Disability Models: Explaining and Understanding Disability Sport in Different Ways" provides an informative overview of different models used to understand disability within sport contexts. However, readers should be aware of potential biases in this article and seek out additional sources to gain a more comprehensive understanding of these issues.