1. Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) is a manufacturing technology for creating parts with intricate 3D geometries and functionalities, but the quality of the parts depends on understanding defect formation mechanisms.
2. Scaling analyses are useful for providing relations for process operation that are applicable to different materials and processing parameters in LPBF.
3. Balling porosity is a common defect in LPBF of copper and precious metals, and several mechanisms have been proposed for its formation, including hydro-dynamic capillary instabilities and poor wettability due to surface oxides.