1. The ethological control systems theory (ECST) of attachment suggests that secure infant-caregiver attachment is necessary for optimal psychosocial development of the infant, and disruption of usual attachment to a caregiver can lead to developmental psychopathology that can propagate across generations.
2. Psychobiological attachment theory (PAT) expands on ECST with the aim of providing an understanding of attachment useful to both scientists and clinicians, but challenges or demands modifications of three basic assumptions underlying ECST.
3. Research on the presumed neurobiological substrates of attachment behavior has produced results that, if not incompatible, are at least not accounted for by ECST, leading to the need for modifications in core assumptions of attachment theory.
The article "Psychobiology of Early Social Attachment in Rhesus Monkeys Clinical Implications" provides a review of recent theory and research on the psychobiology of attachment, with a focus on the mother-infant relationship in primates. The article discusses the ethological control systems theory (ECST) of attachment, which suggests that secure infant-caregiver attachment is necessary for optimal psychosocial development of the infant. The article also introduces the psychobiological attachment theory (PAT), which expands on ECST and challenges or demands modifications of three basic assumptions underlying ECST.
One potential bias in this article is its heavy reliance on research conducted on rhesus monkeys. While these studies may provide valuable insights into the psychobiology of attachment, it is important to consider whether findings from non-human animals can be directly applied to humans. Additionally, the article does not thoroughly explore counterarguments or alternative perspectives on attachment theory.
Another potential issue with this article is its promotion of PAT as an alternative to ECST without providing sufficient evidence for its claims. While PAT may offer a more comprehensive understanding of attachment behavior, it is important to critically evaluate any new theories before accepting them as fact.
Overall, while this article provides a useful overview of attachment theory and its clinical implications, readers should approach its claims with a critical eye and consider alternative perspectives and evidence.