1. The environmental justice movement has not been successful in improving the environmental conditions of vulnerable communities, and the environmental disparities between white and nonwhite communities may have worsened.
2. The failure of the environmental justice movement can be attributed to industry capture of the state, state co-optation of EJ activists, and a less oppositional EJ movement.
3. Environmental racism should be understood as a constituent element of racial capitalism, and the state should be seen as actively sanctioning and producing racial violence in the form of death and degraded bodies and environments.
The article titled "Geographies of race and ethnicity II: Environmental racism, racial capitalism and state-sanctioned violence" by Laura Pulido discusses the concept of environmental racism and its connection to racial capitalism. While the article raises important points about the limitations of the environmental justice movement and the need for a more radical analysis, it also has some potential biases and shortcomings.
One potential bias in the article is its focus on the United States. While Pulido acknowledges that the environmental justice movement is global, she primarily focuses on the US context. This narrow focus limits the generalizability of her arguments and may overlook important nuances and variations in other parts of the world.
Another potential bias is Pulido's emphasis on racial capitalism as a fundamental element of environmental racism. While there may be connections between racial capitalism and environmental disparities, this perspective may oversimplify complex social, economic, and political factors that contribute to environmental injustice. It also assumes a direct causal relationship between capitalism and racism without fully exploring alternative explanations or counterarguments.
The article also makes unsupported claims about the failure of the environmental justice movement to achieve substantive results. While Pulido cites some studies that highlight persistent inequalities between white and nonwhite communities, she does not provide a comprehensive analysis of all relevant research on this topic. Without considering a broader range of evidence, it is difficult to determine whether or not progress has been made through EJ initiatives.
Additionally, there are missing points of consideration in the article. For example, Pulido does not discuss potential solutions or strategies for addressing environmental racism within a capitalist system. She also does not explore alternative frameworks or theories that could complement or challenge her analysis.
Furthermore, while Pulido criticizes liberal politics and working with the state as part of the problem, she does not fully explore alternative approaches or consider potential risks associated with opposing state-sanctioned violence. This one-sided perspective limits a comprehensive understanding of how change can be achieved within existing power structures.
Overall, the article presents a thought-provoking analysis of environmental racism and its connection to racial capitalism. However, it has potential biases, unsupported claims, missing points of consideration, and unexplored counterarguments that should be taken into account when evaluating its arguments.