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Article summary:

1. Urban noise pollution can have serious negative effects on human health, and urban parks are being explored as a potential solution to relieve psychological pressure and increase positive emotions.

2. Perceived soundscape restorativeness (PSR) is a complex process that involves the listener, the environment, and the interaction between them. External factors from the environment and internal factors from the listener's perspective can both influence PSR.

3. Audio-visual interaction scenarios lead to different restorative benefits, and individual characteristics contribute to this process as well. Clarifying the mechanism of audio-visual interaction in triggering PSR is important for designing restorative soundscapes that can be better integrated into landscape planning and design processes.

Article analysis:

The article "Audio-visual interaction and visitor characteristics affect perceived soundscape restorativeness: Case study in five parks in China" provides insights into the influential factors of visitors' perceived soundscape restorativeness (PSR) in urban parks. The authors aim to explore the effects of audio-visual interactions and individual differences on PSR, which can facilitate the design and creation of restorative soundscapes.

The article presents a comprehensive literature review on the restorative benefits of soundscapes, including their positive effects on physical and mental recovery. The authors also discuss previous studies that have validated the restorative effect of soundscapes from multiple perspectives, such as natural soundscapes with birdsong and water sounds providing more restorative benefits than urban contexts.

However, the article has some potential biases and limitations. Firstly, the study was conducted only in Fuzhou, China, which may limit its generalizability to other regions or cultures. Secondly, while the authors acknowledge that individual characteristics can significantly affect soundscape perception, they do not provide a detailed analysis of these factors or how they interact with audio-visual stimuli to influence PSR.

Moreover, some claims made by the authors are unsupported by evidence or missing points of consideration. For instance, they state that "sensescape coherence is one of the conditions in restorative soundscape design," but do not provide any evidence or explanation for this claim. Additionally, while they discuss previous studies that have found natural soundscapes to be more restorative than urban contexts, they do not consider whether certain types of urban soundscapes could also be beneficial for PSR.

Furthermore, while the article presents a detailed analysis of the effects of audio-visual interactions on PSR and individual differences in visitors' PSR, it does not explore potential counterarguments or alternative explanations for these findings. For example, it is possible that visitors' perceptions of audio-visual stimuli are influenced by factors such as their mood or current stress levels rather than solely by their demographic characteristics.

In conclusion, while "Audio-visual interaction and visitor characteristics affect perceived soundscape restorativeness: Case study in five parks in China" provides valuable insights into influential factors affecting visitors' PSR in urban parks through empirical surveys and model building techniques; it has some potential biases and limitations that should be considered when interpreting its findings.