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Article summary:

1. Recent decades have seen a global cascade of restrictive and repressive measures against nongovernmental organizations (NGOs).

2. This article theorizes that state learning from observing the regional environment, rather than NGO growth or domestic unrest, explains this rapid diffusion of restrictions.

3. The article tests two hypotheses: (1) states adopt NGO restrictions in response to nonarmed bottom-up threats in their regional environment; (2) states adopt NGO restrictions through imitation of the legislative behavior of other states in their regional environment.

Article analysis:

The article is generally reliable and trustworthy, as it provides evidence for its claims and presents both sides of the argument fairly. The authors provide an extensive dataset to support their claims, which is updated from Christensen and Weinstein's 2013 database. Additionally, they use negative binomial regression and survival analysis with different types of spatial weights to test their hypotheses.

The only potential bias in the article is that it does not explore counterarguments or present any risks associated with adopting NGO restrictions. It also does not discuss any potential unintended consequences that may arise from such policies. Furthermore, while the authors do provide evidence for their claims, they do not provide any evidence for possible alternative explanations for the rise in NGO restrictions.