1. The traditional male gender role may have negative consequences on psychological well-being.
2. Gender-role conflict, a psychological state in which gender roles have negative consequences or impact on the individual or on others, is negatively correlated with psychological well-being.
3. Canonical analysis can be helpful in modeling the relationship between gender roles, gender-role conflict, and psychological well-being.
The article "Gender role, gender-role conflict, and psychological well-being in men" by Sharpe and Heppner (1991) explores the relationship between gender roles, gender-role conflict, and psychological well-being in men. The authors argue that understanding the impact of gender on psychological problems is crucial for therapists to provide effective treatment. However, the article has several limitations that need to be addressed.
One potential bias in the article is its focus on traditional male gender roles and their negative impact on psychological well-being. While this is an important issue, it overlooks other factors that may contribute to mental health problems in men. For example, societal expectations around masculinity can also lead to stigma around seeking help for mental health issues. Additionally, the article does not consider how other social identities such as race or sexual orientation may intersect with gender roles to impact mental health.
Another limitation of the article is its reliance on self-report measures of psychological well-being. While these measures are commonly used in research, they have limitations such as social desirability bias and lack of objective data. Additionally, the study only includes male participants from a single university which limits generalizability.
The authors also rely heavily on previous research using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) to measure masculinity and femininity. However, there are concerns about whether these measures accurately capture gender identity and expression. Furthermore, recent research suggests that there may be more than two dimensions of gender identity beyond masculinity and femininity.
Finally, while the authors acknowledge some limitations of previous research on gender roles and psychological well-being, they do not explore alternative explanations for why masculinity may be positively correlated with certain aspects of mental health such as self-esteem. For example, it could be that individuals who conform more closely to traditional masculine norms have greater access to resources or social support which contributes to better mental health outcomes.
Overall, while this article provides some insights into the relationship between gender roles, gender-role conflict, and psychological well-being in men, it has several limitations that need to be addressed. Future research should consider a more intersectional approach to understanding the impact of gender on mental health and explore alternative explanations for the relationship between masculinity and positive mental health outcomes.