1. The theory that users of a commons are inevitably led to destroy the resource on which they depend, as proposed by Garrett Hardin in 1968, has been challenged by empirical studies of sustainable resources and successful institutions for governing them.
2. Common-pool resources (CPRs) include natural and human-constructed resources in which exclusion of beneficiaries through physical and institutional means is especially costly, and exploitation by one user reduces resource availability for others.
3. Successful self-organized processes for local and regional CPRs depend on attributes of resource systems and their users, including the benefits and costs that users perceive from investing in the resource instead of overexploiting it.
The article "Revisiting the commons: Local lessons, global challenges" provides a comprehensive overview of the evolution of common-pool resource management since Garrett Hardin's influential paper "The Tragedy of the Commons" was published in 1968. The authors argue that while tragedies have occurred, people have self-organized to manage common-pool resources sustainably for thousands of years. They also highlight new insights into the conditions that favor sustainable use and management of these resources.
One potential bias in the article is its focus on successful examples of local and regional common-pool resource management. While it acknowledges that CPR problems continue to exist in many regulated settings, it does not provide a balanced view of failures or challenges faced by communities attempting to manage these resources. Additionally, the article does not explore counterarguments to its claims about successful CPR management, such as critiques of community-based natural resource management approaches.
Another potential bias is the article's emphasis on self-organized governance regimes and norms as solutions to CPR dilemmas. While these approaches have been successful in some cases, they may not be applicable or effective in all contexts. The article could benefit from a more nuanced discussion of when and where self-organization is likely to succeed versus when external interventions may be necessary.
The article also lacks evidence for some of its claims, such as its assertion that institutional diversity may be as important as biological diversity for long-term survival. While this may be true, the article does not provide empirical evidence or theoretical arguments to support this claim.
Overall, while "Revisiting the commons" provides a useful overview of current thinking on common-pool resource management, it could benefit from a more critical examination of potential biases and limitations in its analysis.