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Article summary:

1. ADHD is more common in males than females in childhood, but the sex ratio becomes closer to 1:1 in adulthood.

2. Females are more likely to show symptom onsets around adolescence, which may be related to environmental demands and supports.

3. Current diagnostic criteria for ADHD may disadvantage females due to the developmental inappropriateness of some diagnostic markers.

Article analysis:

The article "Sex differences in ADHD trajectories across childhood and adolescence" by Murray (2019) provides insights into the developmental trajectories of ADHD symptoms in males and females. The author highlights that while ADHD is more common in males during childhood, the sex ratio declines with age, suggesting differential developmental trajectories of symptoms. The article raises important questions about how age and sex should be taken into account in diagnosis and treatment.

The article presents a balanced view of the potential reasons for the decline in sex ratios with age. However, there are some biases and limitations to consider. For example, the article focuses on community-based samples, which may not be representative of clinical populations. Additionally, the article does not explore potential cultural or societal factors that may contribute to sex differences in ADHD prevalence or symptom presentation.

The author notes that current diagnostic criteria for ADHD may disadvantage females due to their relatively greater impairment in the inattention domain. However, this claim is not supported by empirical evidence presented in the article. While it is possible that some diagnostic markers are developmentally inappropriate for adults, there is no evidence to suggest that this disproportionately affects females.

The article also suggests that early adolescence is a specific window of vulnerability for manifest symptom increases. This claim is supported by empirical evidence presented in the article but could benefit from further exploration of potential environmental or social factors that may contribute to this vulnerability.

Overall, while the article provides valuable insights into sex differences in ADHD developmental trajectories, it could benefit from a more comprehensive exploration of potential biases and limitations. Additionally, some claims made in the article could benefit from stronger empirical support or consideration of alternative explanations.