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Article summary:

1. Human functional brain mapping began with the combination of cognitive psychology and modern brain-imaging techniques like PET and fMRI to study how brain function supports mental activities.

2. The relationship between brain function and blood flow was first explored in the late 19th century, leading to advancements in understanding the physiology of brain imaging.

3. The development of technologies like X-ray computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) played crucial roles in the emergence of functional brain imaging, particularly fMRI.

Article analysis:

The article provides a detailed historical overview of human brain mapping, focusing on the development of functional brain imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). It discusses the physiological basis of these techniques, their historical context, and the key figures involved in their development. The article also touches upon the emergence of X-ray computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as important tools in neuroimaging.

One potential bias in the article is its focus on PET and fMRI as the primary techniques for functional brain imaging, while briefly mentioning other techniques such as EEG, MEG, and ECoG. This could lead to an incomplete picture of the field of cognitive neuroscience, as these other techniques also play a significant role in studying brain function. Additionally, the article does not delve into the limitations or drawbacks of PET and fMRI, such as issues with spatial resolution or potential confounds in data interpretation.

The article also presents a somewhat one-sided view of the history of brain imaging, focusing primarily on Western researchers and institutions. There is little mention of contributions from non-Western scientists or research centers, which could give a more comprehensive understanding of the global development of brain mapping techniques.

Furthermore, while the article provides a detailed account of the physiological basis of PET and fMRI, it lacks discussion on ethical considerations or potential risks associated with these imaging techniques. For example, there is no mention of concerns related to radiation exposure in PET scans or issues surrounding patient consent and privacy in neuroimaging research.

In terms of unsupported claims or missing evidence, the article briefly mentions disagreements within the scientific community regarding early findings in brain circulation and metabolism but does not provide specific examples or references to support this claim. Including more concrete examples or citations could strengthen this aspect of the article.

Overall, while the article offers a comprehensive overview of human brain mapping history, it could benefit from addressing potential biases related to technique selection and geographical focus, providing a more balanced view of different imaging methods used in cognitive neuroscience research. Additionally, discussing ethical considerations and potential risks associated with neuroimaging would enhance the completeness and depth of the analysis.