1. Emerging market lead firms (ELFs) and advanced economy lead firms (ALFs) differ in objectives, trajectory, and governance.
2. ELFs use GVCs to upgrade resources while ALFs do so to distribute activities.
3. ELFs expand abroad to accumulate additional value-added segments of their GVCs while ALFs disaggregate simplified segments to reduce costs.
The article is generally reliable and trustworthy, as it provides a comprehensive overview of the differences between emerging market lead firms (ELFs) and advanced economy lead firms (ALFs). The article is well-researched and supported by evidence from previous studies, such as those by Buckley (2009), Dhanaraj and Parkhe (2006), Gereffi (1994), Kano (2018), Contractor et al. (2010), Nieto and Rodríguez (2011), World Bank (2020), Cuervo-Cazurra and Ramamurti (2014), Guillen and Garcia-Canal (2009), Ramamurti and Singh (2009), Sauvant (2009), Baldwin (2016), Aguiar et al. (2012), Lee and Gereffi (2015), Pananond, 2013, Pananond and Giroud, 2016, Penrose, 1959, Cuervo-Cazurra and Genc 2008, Cuervo-Cazurra et al., 2018, Luo and Wang 2012, Khanna and Palepu 2010, Prahalad 2005 , Rui et al., 2016 , Williamson et al., 2013 , He et al., 2018 , Madhok & Keyhani 2012 , Azmeh & Nadvi 2014 , Giuliani et al., 2018 , Horner & Nadvi 2018 , Pananond 2015 , Sako & Zylberberg 2019 , Tessman 2017 , Kano et al., 2020 & Ponte & Sturgeon 2014 . The article also presents both sides of the argument equally without any bias or partiality towards either side.
The only potential issue with the article is that it does not explore any counterarguments or present any risks associated with the differences between ELFs’ and ALFs’ GVCs. This could be addressed by providing more information on potential risks associated with each type of firm’s approach to GVCs or exploring counterarguments from other researchers in the field.