1. The article introduces a design model called the beam-joint discontinuity model for shield lining segments.
2. The article discusses the use of on-site measured values of internal forces to determine the distribution and size of pressure loads on the lining structure.
3. The article compares local and full-circumference formation spring action models using inverse analysis techniques.
Based on the provided information, it is difficult to conduct a detailed critical analysis of the article as it only includes the title and some keywords. Without the actual content of the article, it is not possible to assess its potential biases, one-sided reporting, unsupported claims, missing points of consideration, missing evidence for claims made, unexplored counterarguments, promotional content, partiality, or whether possible risks are noted.
To provide a comprehensive analysis, it would be necessary to review the full text of the article and evaluate its arguments, methodology, data sources, and conclusions.