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1. Nanozyme catalytic therapy using copper-doped cerium oxide (CeO2/Cu) has potential for tumor treatment: Nanozymes, nanomaterials with enzyme-mimicking properties, have advantages such as improved stability and cost-effectiveness compared to natural enzymes. CeO2/Cu has been found to possess surface oxygen vacancies critical for converting reactive oxygen species (ROS) into hydroxyl radicals (∙OH), which can induce cancer cell death.

2. CeO2/Cu-W exhibits high superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase-like (POD) activity: Among different morphologies of CeO2/Cu, CeO2/Cu-W (wires) shows the highest SOD and POD activity. This facilitates the continuous catalysis of O2∙− → H2O2 → ∙OH in cancer cells through a relay reaction supported by oxygen vacancies, leading to constant production of ∙OH and triggering apoptosis in cancer cells.

3. Crystal characteristics of CeO2 and CeO2/Cu were verified through XRD and microscopy techniques: Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments confirmed the crystal characteristics of CeO2 and CeO2/Cu with different morphologies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed uniform arrangement of CeO2 on the substrate, indicating well-prepared CeO2 as a template for subsequent reactions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images further exhibited... [the rest of the sentence is cut off].

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