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Article summary:

1. Humans have the ability to represent other agents’ beliefs, even if they contradict our own beliefs, and this is crucial for social interactions.

2. Previous research suggested that this ability, known as a theory of mind (ToM), emerges after the age of four, but newer studies suggest it may be present in younger children and even infants.

3. The experiments conducted by Kovács et al. show that belief computations are automatically triggered by the mere presence of an agent in both adults and infants as young as 7 months, and that beliefs about others’ beliefs are stored in a format similar to our own representations about the environment and can affect our behavior.

Article analysis:

The article "The Social Sense: Susceptibility to Others’ Beliefs in Human Infants and Adults" discusses the ability of humans to understand and represent the beliefs of others, even when those beliefs are not anchored in reality. The article presents research that suggests that this capacity, commonly referred to as a theory of mind, may emerge much earlier than previously thought, possibly even in infants as young as 7 months old.

While the article provides an interesting overview of the research on this topic, there are some potential biases and limitations to consider. For example, the article focuses primarily on studies that support the idea that ToM abilities may be innate and automatic, rather than learned through experience. However, there is also evidence to suggest that social experiences and cultural factors may play a role in shaping these abilities (1).

Additionally, while the article notes that representations of others' beliefs can differ from representations of the environment in important ways, it does not fully explore how these differences might impact our ability to accurately understand and predict others' behavior. For example, it is possible that our own biases and assumptions could influence how we interpret others' beliefs, leading us to make incorrect predictions about their behavior.

Furthermore, while the article suggests that ToM abilities may be crucial for human societies and social interactions, it does not fully explore potential risks or downsides associated with these abilities. For example, some researchers have suggested that over-reliance on ToM abilities could lead individuals to make incorrect assumptions about others' intentions or motivations (2).

Overall, while the article provides an interesting overview of research on ToM abilities in humans, it is important to consider potential biases and limitations in interpreting these findings. Further research will be needed to fully understand how these abilities develop and function in different contexts.


1. Wellman HM. Making Minds: How Theory of Mind Develops. Oxford University Press; 2014.

2. Apperly IA, Butterfill SA. Do humans have two systems to track beliefs and belief-like states? Psychol Rev. 2009;116(4):953-970. doi:10.1037/a0016923