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1. Bike-sharing programs have evolved over the years, with three generations of systems being developed. The first generation, introduced in Amsterdam in 1965, failed due to issues such as theft and misuse. The second generation, launched in Denmark in the 1990s, saw improvements but still faced challenges. The third generation, starting with Bikeabout in England in 1996, incorporated technological advancements and improved customer tracking.

2. Bike-sharing programs have had significant impacts on increasing cycling rates, promoting public health, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving connectivity to other modes of transportation. In cities with low cycling rates, bike-sharing has been successful in raising bike mode share by 1-1.5%. Transit use has also increased due to bike-sharing's first mile/last mile solution and the availability of bikes for connecting to other modes of transit.

3. Bike-sharing programs have gained popularity worldwide since the launch of Velo'v in Lyon in 2005 and Vélib' in Paris in 2007. These programs have inspired the implementation of similar systems in countries such as Brazil, Chile, China, New Zealand, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. The success of these programs has generated global interest and enthusiasm for bike-sharing as a sustainable transportation option.

Overall, this article provides a comprehensive overview of the history, impacts, models of provision, and future prospects of bike-sharing programs.

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