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1. Cryopreservation is a crucial technique for long-term storage of biological materials, such as organs, tissues, and cells, by using very low temperatures. It allows for the preservation of normal structure and function integrity after thawing and has various biomedical applications.

2. The formation, growth, and recrystallization of ice crystals are major limitations in cryopreservation and cause damage to cryopreserved samples. Anti-icing materials and strategies, including cryoprotectants, antifreeze proteins, synthetic polymers, nanomaterials, hydrogels, trehalose delivery, cell encapsulation, and bioinspired structure design can effectively regulate and suppress ice crystals to reduce damage and improve cryopreservation efficiency.

3. External physical field technologies used during the cooling and thawing processes can also inhibit ice crystal formation. However, there are still challenges in the field of ice inhibition for high-efficiency cryopreservation that need to be addressed in future research.

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