1. Mucosal vaccines, delivered via the nose or throat as sniffable or inhalable formulations, could offer long-term immunity against COVID-19.
2. These vaccines work differently to those delivered by needle and may be better at getting the immune system to remember SARS-CoV-2.
3. Several mucosal vaccine candidates are being explored in pre-clinical and clinical trials, with some countries already rolling out these vaccines.
The article is generally reliable and trustworthy, providing a comprehensive overview of the potential benefits of mucosal vaccines for long-term immunity against COVID-19. It provides evidence from pre-clinical and clinical trials that suggest these vaccines could be effective in preventing infection and inducing memory cells in the nose, mouth and throat to remember SARS-CoV-2. The article also mentions potential advantages such as smaller doses needed, less stringent storage requirements compared with conventional vaccines, and greater appeal for those with needle phobias.
The article does not appear to have any major biases or one-sided reporting; it presents both sides of the argument fairly and objectively. It acknowledges that there is still much to learn about which delivery strategy is optimal for which vaccine, as well as disparities between results from different trials that need further investigation. It also notes possible risks associated with mucosal vaccines such as their efficacy in resource poor countries and their ability to induce memory cells in humans.
The only potential issue with the article is that it does not explore any counterarguments or alternative points of view on the use of mucosal vaccines for long term immunity against COVID-19. However, this does not detract from its overall reliability and trustworthiness as an informative source on this topic.