1. Chinese attitudes towards sexuality have undergone significant changes throughout history, from open and permissive to increasingly negative and repressive, before shifting towards a more pleasure-seeking outlook in the 1990s.
2. Confucianism and Taoism had a significant impact on early Chinese attitudes towards sex, with sexual activity seen as necessary for achieving harmony with the universe and appropriate techniques emphasized in pursuit of personal immortality.
3. The Open Door Policy introduced in 1978 led to increased individualism and changes to social norms regarding love, marriage, and sexuality in China, with a shift towards greater tolerance of sexual expression and gender equality.
The article provides a comprehensive overview of the historical and contemporary attitudes towards sexuality in China, with a focus on changes that have occurred since the 1990s. The authors draw on a range of sources to support their claims, including historical texts, surveys, and scholarly articles. However, there are several potential biases and limitations to consider.
One potential bias is the authors' reliance on Western sources to understand Chinese sexuality. While they acknowledge that Western ideals have influenced Chinese attitudes towards sex, it is unclear how much weight they give to indigenous perspectives. Additionally, the authors do not explore how different regions or social groups within China may have distinct attitudes towards sexuality.
Another limitation is the lack of discussion around gender and power dynamics in sexual relationships. While the authors note that there has been increased acceptance of female sexuality in modern China, they do not address issues such as sexual violence or unequal power dynamics between partners. This omission may be due to a lack of available data or a focus on broader societal changes rather than individual experiences.
The article also makes several unsupported claims, such as stating that China is undergoing a "sexual revolution" without providing clear evidence for this assertion. Additionally, while the authors compare attitudes towards premarital sex and masturbation in China and the United States, they do not provide sufficient context for these comparisons (such as differences in cultural norms or historical factors).
Overall, while the article provides valuable insights into changing attitudes towards sexuality in China, it would benefit from more nuanced analysis and consideration of potential biases and limitations.