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Article summary:

1. Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common health problem among university students in Iraq and Jordan, with around one third of participants reporting being diagnosed by a clinician as having DES.

2. Students aged 27-29 years, those at their fifth year of study, and those who wear contact lenses are at higher risk of developing DES compared to others.

3. The COVID-19 pandemic has forced many university students to use digital devices for long periods of time, which may contribute to the development of DES. Further research is needed to identify strategies that could help reduce the risk of developing DES among this population.

Article analysis:

The article titled "Visual health and prevalence of dry eye syndrome among university students in Iraq and Jordan" presents a cross-sectional study conducted in Iraq and Jordan to explore the visual health and prevalence of dry eye syndrome (DES) among university students. The study used a previously developed and validated questionnaire tool, including the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire – 25 (VFQ-25) and the Women’s Health Study Questionnaire (WHS), to collect data from 1,431 university students.

The article provides a comprehensive overview of DES, its causes, symptoms, and prevalence worldwide. However, there are some potential biases in the study that need to be considered. Firstly, the study only included university students from Iraq and Jordan, which limits its generalizability to other populations. Secondly, the study relied on self-reported data from participants, which may not accurately reflect their actual condition or symptoms. Thirdly, the study did not consider other factors that may contribute to DES, such as environmental factors like air pollution or dietary habits.

Moreover, the article does not provide enough evidence for some of its claims. For instance, it states that devices such as computers and mobile phones may reduce blinking while working on them but does not provide any supporting evidence for this claim. Additionally, while the article notes that DES is more common in women than men and increases with age, it does not explore why this is so or whether there are any other demographic factors that may influence DES prevalence.

Furthermore, the article does not present counterarguments or alternative perspectives on DES prevalence or risk factors. For example, it does not discuss whether there are any interventions or strategies that can help reduce the risk of developing DES among device users or whether there are any controversies surrounding current treatments for DES.

In conclusion, while the article provides valuable insights into DES prevalence among university students in Iraq and Jordan and highlights some potential risk factors associated with it, it also has some limitations regarding bias and unsupported claims. Future research should aim to address these limitations by using more diverse samples and collecting objective measures of DES symptoms while considering other potential contributing factors.