1. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) are biomarkers that may reflect inflammatory status in autoimmune encephalitis (AE).
2. NLR and MLR were positively correlated with the severity of AE, as assessed by the Clinical Assessment Scale for Autoimmune Encephalitis (CASE) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS).
3. NLR and MLR were independent risk factors for the severity of AE, but not associated with prognosis after immunotherapy. These markers could be helpful for clinicians to monitor disease progression and identify potentially severe patients early on.
The article titled "The Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte and Monocyte-to-Lymphocyte Ratios Are Independently Associated With the Severity of Autoimmune Encephalitis" presents a retrospective analysis of 199 patients diagnosed with autoimmune encephalitis (AE) to investigate the association of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) with the severity and prognosis of AE. The study found that NLR and MLR were positively correlated with the Clinical Assessment Scale for Autoimmune Encephalitis (CASE) score and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score in AE patients, and were independent risk factors for the severity of AE. However, NLR and MLR at admission and whether they decreased after immunotherapy were not associated with the prognosis of AE patients.
Overall, the article provides valuable insights into potential biomarkers for monitoring disease progression and identifying potentially severe patients early to optimize clinical treatment decisions. However, there are some limitations to consider. Firstly, this is a retrospective study, which may have inherent biases such as selection bias, information bias, or confounding bias. Secondly, the sample size is relatively small, which may limit the generalizability of the findings. Thirdly, there is no control group included in this study to compare NLR and MLR levels in healthy individuals or other neurological diseases.
Moreover, while the article highlights the importance of CASE as an assessment scale designed specifically for AE that compensates for deficiencies in assessing non-motor symptoms compared to mRS, it does not provide a detailed comparison between these two scales or discuss their limitations. Additionally, while previous studies have shown that high levels of NLR are associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients, this article did not explore potential mechanisms underlying why NLR and MLR are associated with severity but not prognosis in AE patients.
In conclusion, while this article provides valuable insights into potential biomarkers for monitoring disease progression in AE patients using readily available inflammatory markers such as NLR and MLR, further research is needed to confirm these findings on a larger scale with more diverse patient populations. Additionally, future studies should explore potential mechanisms underlying why these biomarkers are associated with severity but not prognosis in AE patients.