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Article summary:

1. Organizations are political systems because they involve divided interests and conflicts that need to be resolved through power.

2. Power can come from various sources, including formal authority, control of resources, decision processes, knowledge and information, and interpersonal alliances.

3. Understanding the political dynamics of an organization can help individuals navigate power relations and influence decision-making processes. However, an overemphasis on politics can lead to mistrust and cynicism within the organization.

Article analysis:

The article "Organization as Political System" provides an in-depth analysis of how organizations function as political systems. The authors argue that politics is an inevitable feature of organizations because people often have divided interests, which can lead to conflicts and power struggles. The article breaks down the main components of organizational politics, including sources of power, frames of reference, and political behavior.

One potential bias in the article is its focus on the negative aspects of organizational politics. While it acknowledges that politics can be beneficial in certain situations, such as when trying to gain favor for a particular idea, it primarily portrays politics as a negative force that can harm productivity and trust within an organization. This bias may stem from the authors' own experiences or observations of workplace politics.

Another potential bias is the limited scope of the article's examples and sources. The authors primarily draw from one book by Gareth Morgan and a 1959 study by French and Raven on social power. While these sources provide valuable insights into organizational politics, they are somewhat dated and may not fully capture the complexities of modern workplaces.

The article also lacks exploration of counterarguments or alternative perspectives on organizational politics. For example, some scholars argue that power dynamics in organizations are not always zero-sum games where one person's gain is another person's loss. Instead, they suggest that power can be shared or distributed among individuals or groups within an organization.

Overall, while "Organization as Political System" provides a useful framework for understanding organizational politics, it could benefit from more diverse examples and sources to avoid potential biases and limitations in its analysis.