1. The asymptotic radiative transfer (ART) model is widely used in snow remote sensing, but it underestimates the forward-scattering direction of snow reflectance.
2. The ARTF model is proposed to improve the ART model by multiplying a correction term, and its performance is validated using various data sources.
3. The ARTF model has higher accuracy in characterizing snow bidirectional signatures than the ART and ARTS models, and can effectively represent snow hyperspectral reflectance.
The article provides an overview of the asymptotic radiative transfer (ART) model and its application in snow remote sensing, as well as a proposed improvement to the ART model with a correction term (ARTF). The article presents evidence from various data sources to validate the performance of the ARTF model, demonstrating that it has higher accuracy in characterizing snow bidirectional signatures than the ART and ARTS models.
The article appears to be reliable and trustworthy overall, providing evidence from multiple sources to support its claims. However, there are some potential biases that should be noted. For example, while the article does mention Arctic amplification (AA), it does not provide any evidence or discussion on how this phenomenon may affect snow reflectance or how it could be taken into account when modeling snow reflectance. Additionally, while the article mentions numerical methods such as DISORT for calculating angular radiance quantities, it does not discuss any potential limitations or drawbacks of these methods compared to other approaches such as radiative transfer approximations. Furthermore, while the article discusses field measurements for understanding snow angular and spectral patterns, it does not provide any details on how these measurements were conducted or what instruments were used for them. Finally, while the article mentions possible applications of satellite remote sensing for monitoring snow changes in mid- to high-latitude regions, it does not discuss any potential challenges associated with this approach or how they could be addressed.