1. Exercise interventions can prevent bone loss and fractures in postmenopausal women.
2. Non-weight bearing high force exercise, such as progressive resistance strength training for the lower limbs, is the most effective type of exercise intervention for bone mineral density at the neck of femur.
3. Combination exercise programs are the most effective intervention for bone mineral density at the spine compared to control groups. However, there was no significant difference in fracture risk between exercise and control groups.
The article "Exercise for preventing and treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women" by Howe (2011) presents a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness of exercise interventions in preventing bone loss and fractures in postmenopausal women. The article provides valuable insights into the potential benefits of exercise for this population, but it also has some limitations that need to be considered.
One potential bias in the article is related to the inclusion criteria for RCTs. Only studies that met predetermined inclusion criteria were included, which may have excluded relevant studies that did not meet these criteria. Additionally, the quality of reporting in the meta-analyses was low, particularly regarding sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, and loss to follow-up. This could have affected the validity of the results.
Another limitation is that the article only focuses on exercise interventions and does not consider other factors that may affect bone health, such as nutrition or medication use. While exercise is an important factor in maintaining bone health, it is not the only one.
The article also makes some unsupported claims about the effectiveness of exercise interventions. For example, it states that exercise has a "relatively small statistically significant" effect on bone density compared with control groups but does not provide evidence to support this claim. Additionally, while the article notes that fractures and falls were reported as adverse events in some studies, it does not provide information on any potential risks associated with exercise interventions.
Overall, while this article provides valuable insights into the potential benefits of exercise for preventing and treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, it has some limitations that need to be considered when interpreting its findings. Future research should aim to address these limitations and provide more robust evidence on the effectiveness of exercise interventions for this population.