1. Researchers have long been interested in when children first understand that agents might hold and act on false beliefs.
2. Elicited-response tasks suggest that the ability to attribute false beliefs does not emerge until about age 4, but recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that this ability is present much earlier.
3. Results from various spontaneous-response tasks suggest that infants in the second year of life can already attribute false beliefs about location and identity as well as false perceptions.
The article "False-belief understanding in infants" discusses the ability of children to attribute false beliefs to others and when this ability emerges. The article presents two different types of tasks used to investigate this question: elicited-response tasks and spontaneous-response tasks. Elicited-response tasks involve asking children a direct question about an agent's false belief, while spontaneous-response tasks involve observing how children react to a situation where an agent holds a false belief.
The article notes that traditional elicited-response tasks suggest that the ability to attribute false beliefs does not emerge until around age 4. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that infants as young as 1 year old can already attribute false beliefs about location, identity, and perception.
While the article provides a thorough overview of the research on false-belief understanding in infants, it is important to note some potential biases and limitations. For example, the article primarily focuses on studies that support the idea that infants have an early understanding of false beliefs. It does not explore studies with conflicting results or alternative interpretations of the data.
Additionally, the article does not discuss potential limitations of the methods used in these studies. For example, some researchers have argued that spontaneous-response tasks may be more prone to experimenter bias than elicited-response tasks because they rely on subjective interpretations of infant behavior.
Overall, while the article provides valuable insights into current research on false-belief understanding in infants, it is important for readers to consider potential biases and limitations in interpreting these findings.