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Article summary:

1. Palmitic acid (PA) is a major cause of male infertility in obese individuals due to its lipotoxic effects, which can trigger apoptotic cell death and oxidative stress in nonadipose cells, including spermatozoa.

2. Melatonin, an endogenous hormone with various physiological functions, has been shown to protect the testis against damage from hyperthermia, environmental toxins, and drugs due to its free radical scavenging characteristics. It also modulates steroid hormone secretion and promotes spermatogenic cell proliferation.

3. The protective effect of melatonin on PA-induced lipotoxicity in the testis is mediated by attenuation of oxidative stress and DNA damage in a SIRT1-dependent manner. SIRT1 deacetylates substrate proteins involved in stress resistance, differentiation, and gene silencing, and recent studies have shown that melatonin exerts biological effects via a SIRT1-dependent mechanism in aging, inflammation, and embryo development.

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