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Article summary:

1. The history of motivation and emotion concepts in psychology and affective neuroscience is discussed, drawing on both animal studies and human studies.

2. There is a debate about whether emotions can exist independently of subjective feelings, with some arguing that emotions are necessarily always and only a subjective feeling, while others believe that affective reactions and emotions can occur unconsciously as implicit processes.

3. Evidence suggests that emotions can also occur even in people without being subjectively felt under some conditions, contradicting the contention that emotions are always subjective feelings.

Article analysis:

The article "Evolving Concepts of Emotion and Motivation" provides a comprehensive overview of the history of emotion and motivation concepts in psychology and affective neuroscience. However, the article is not without its biases and limitations.

One potential bias is the author's own perspective on the issue. The author seems to lean towards the view that emotions can occur unconsciously, as well as consciously, and that animals share many emotional processes with humans. This perspective is supported by several prominent psychologists and affective neuroscientists, but it is not universally accepted.

Another potential bias is the selective reporting of evidence. The author cites several studies and theories that support their perspective, but there may be other studies or theories that contradict or challenge their claims. For example, some researchers argue that emotions are purely subjective experiences that cannot be objectively measured or studied in animals.

Additionally, the article does not explore counterarguments or alternative perspectives in depth. While the author briefly mentions some opposing views, they do not provide a thorough analysis of these perspectives or address their criticisms.

Furthermore, some claims made in the article are unsupported by evidence or are presented without sufficient context. For example, the author cites Joseph LeDoux's assertion that emotions must always be conscious, but does not provide any evidence to support this claim.

Overall, while "Evolving Concepts of Emotion and Motivation" provides a useful overview of the history of emotion and motivation concepts in psychology and affective neuroscience, readers should approach it with a critical eye and consider alternative perspectives before drawing conclusions.