1. Policy instruments such as rationing, mandated technology, efficiency rebate, education and social norms have been implemented to reduce water demand.
2. Price elasticity of water demand is traditionally low due to lack of information and understanding on price and quantity consumed.
3. Improved understanding of price and water usage could increase price elasticity of demand for residential water, improving the effectiveness of pricing policies.
The article provides a comprehensive overview of the effects of policy announcement, prices and subsidies on water consumption in Singapore. The article is well-structured and provides evidence from various studies to support its claims. However, there are some potential biases that should be noted when evaluating the trustworthiness and reliability of the article.
First, the article does not provide any counterarguments or explore alternative perspectives on the issue. It only presents one side of the argument which may lead to a biased view on the topic. Additionally, it does not mention any possible risks associated with implementing these policies which could be important for readers to consider when forming their own opinion on this issue.
Second, some claims made in the article are unsupported by evidence or data which makes them difficult to verify or evaluate objectively. For example, it states that “not including price information in the bill could reduce price elasticity by 30% or more” without providing any evidence or data to back up this claim.
Third, there is a lack of discussion about how these policies may affect different groups differently which could lead to partiality in reporting as certain groups may benefit more than others from these policies while others may suffer disproportionately from them.
Finally, there is a promotional tone throughout the article which suggests that these policies are beneficial without exploring any potential drawbacks or risks associated with them which could lead readers to form an overly positive opinion about them without considering all aspects of this issue thoroughly.
In conclusion, while this article provides an informative overview on the effects of policy announcement, prices and subsidies on water consumption in Singapore, it should be read critically as it contains some potential biases that should be taken into consideration when forming an opinion about this issue.