1. This paper studies the impact of Demand-pull (DP) and Technology-push (TP) on growth, innovation, and the factor bias of technological change in a two-layer network of input–output (market) and patent citation (innovation) links among 307 6-digit US manufacturing industries in 1977–2012.
2. The results support between- and within-layer TP: Innovation spillovers from upstream industries drive market growth and innovation. Within the market, upstream supply shocks stimulate growth, but this effect differs across industries.
3. The results are strongest after the 2000s and shed light on the drivers of recent technological change and its factor bias.
The article is overall reliable and trustworthy as it provides a comprehensive overview of the impact of Demand-pull (DP) and Technology-push (TP) on growth, innovation, and the factor bias of technological change in a two-layer network of input–output (market) and patent citation (innovation). It is based on empirical evidence from 307 6-digit US manufacturing industries in 1977–2012 which makes it credible. The article also presents both sides equally by discussing both DP and TP effects as well as their potential impacts on growth, innovation, productivity, etc.
However, there are some potential biases that should be noted. Firstly, the article does not explore counterarguments or alternative perspectives to its findings which could provide more insight into the topic at hand. Secondly, it does not discuss any possible risks associated with DP or TP which could be important to consider when making policy decisions related to these mechanisms. Finally, while it does present both sides equally it does not provide any evidence for its claims which could make them more convincing to readers.