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Article summary:

1. The world's petroleum reserves are not infinite and estimates of oil availability span from 40 to 60 years at the present rate of consumption.

2. Liquid synthetic fuels produced by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of a syngas, obtained from natural gas reforming or coal gasification, are receiving much attention as a real alternative to reduce the oil dependence of the transportation sector.

3. A hybrid process combining gas to liquid (GTL) and coal to liquid (CTL) processes can decrease the amount of CO2 emitted per kilogram of liquid fuel produced, with part of the carbon dioxide produced by coal gasification and water gas-shift reaction converted into syngas by dry reforming using methane.

Article analysis:

The article discusses the production of synthetic gasoline and diesel fuel using natural gas and coal as feedstocks. The authors argue that as petroleum reserves are being depleted, alternative sources of energy must be explored. They suggest that liquid synthetic fuels produced through the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of syngas obtained from natural gas reforming or coal gasification could be a viable alternative to reduce oil dependence in the transportation sector.

The article provides a detailed description of the GTL and CTL processes, which are already industrially applied, and proposes a hybrid process combining features of both to decrease CO2 emissions per kilogram of liquid fuel produced. The authors also perform an energy optimization of this process by pinch technology analysis (PTA).

While the article presents a comprehensive overview of the processes involved in producing synthetic fuels, it is important to note some potential biases and limitations. Firstly, the authors do not discuss the environmental impact of coal mining and its associated risks such as air pollution, water contamination, and land degradation. Secondly, they do not provide evidence for their claim that estimates of oil availability span from 40 to 60 years at the present rate of consumption. Thirdly, while they acknowledge that CO2 emissions from coal gasification are a major disadvantage, they do not explore potential solutions for carbon capture and storage.

Furthermore, while the article presents a promising solution for reducing oil dependence in transportation, it does not consider other alternatives such as electric vehicles or renewable energy sources like solar or wind power. Additionally, there is no discussion on how these synthetic fuels would be distributed or how they would compete with existing petroleum-based fuels in terms of cost.

In conclusion, while the article provides valuable insights into the production of synthetic fuels using natural gas and coal as feedstocks, it is important to consider its potential biases and limitations. It is crucial to explore all possible alternatives for reducing our dependence on fossil fuels while also considering their environmental impact and economic feasibility.