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Appears moderately imbalanced

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1. The presence of cracks in solids' microstructure can lead to stiffness reduction, strength degradation, and deterioration of properties.

2. Analytical and numerical methods have been used to obtain effective elastic properties of bodies with different distributions of cracks, but most studies focus on the effect of cracks as imposing excessive compliance.

3. Fractal geometry has been introduced to explain phenomena such as initiation and propagation of cracks in compression, mirror-mist-hackle, and the observed size effects on tensile strength and fracture energy of heterogeneous quasi-brittle solids. Cohesive models and gradient theories have also been proposed to tackle inconsistencies with physical reality in linear elastic fracture mechanics.

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