1. International tourism is generally resilient to terrorism, with no long-term effect and a small short-term effect.
2. Only 9 out of 95 countries show a long-term impact of terrorism on tourism, while 25 show a short-term impact.
3. The impact of terrorism on tourism varies depending on factors such as political instability, income levels, and tourism intensity.
The article "Tourism's vulnerability and resilience to terrorism" explores the relationship between terrorism and international tourism demand in 95 different countries and territories. The authors conclude that, in general, international tourism is resilient to terrorism, with no long-term effect on demand and a limited short-term impact.
While the study provides valuable insights into the topic, there are some potential biases and limitations to consider. For example, the authors only focus on the demand side of tourism and do not explore how terrorism may affect supply or infrastructure. Additionally, they use panel data models that may not capture all the nuances of individual country situations.
Furthermore, the article does not address the psychological impact of terrorism on tourists' decision-making processes. Even if there is no direct impact on demand, fear and anxiety can still influence travelers' choices. The authors also do not consider how media coverage of terrorist attacks may affect perceptions of safety in a destination.
Another limitation is that the study only looks at countries with established tourism industries. It would be interesting to see how terrorism affects emerging destinations or those trying to rebuild their tourism sectors after an attack.
Overall, while the article provides useful information about the resilience of international tourism to terrorism, it is important to consider its limitations and potential biases. Further research could explore these issues in more depth and provide a more comprehensive understanding of this complex topic.