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1. The study of ethnic groups in Southwest China in the 1920s and 1930s was marked by three disagreements, including the importance of the methodology of "combining physique, language and history" to ethnic studies, whether to choose "creating the nation" or "creating the people," and whether to separate China or recognize its differences, give support, promote equality and unity to maintain sovereignty.

2. These disagreements are part of a broader shift in ethnic studies towards combining language, history, and sovereignty. "Creating a nation" and "creating a people" are different aspects of the same process from a traditional state to a sovereign state, and it is impossible to choose one or the other. Only by recognizing the Chinese nation and its constituent elements as "nations" at different levels can we effectively defend sovereignty.

3. From a historical perspective, the localization methodology with subject awareness and theoretical awareness still has unique significance for contemporary China to promote the "pattern of pluralistic unity of the Chinese nation" and continue to move forward along the line of "sovereignty". The article also raises questions about how these debates relate to each other and what kind of methodology can be used as a reference for ethnic studies that takes into account both specific context and broader vision.

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