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Article summary:

1. The increased penetration of solar energy brings challenges for grid operators due to the short-term variability of solar irradiance, causing high variations in the injected power that can cause serious grid stability issues.

2. Power ramp-rate limitation measures have been included in the electrical grid codes of many countries to mitigate this problem, and battery energy storage systems (BESS) are an increasingly attractive solution.

3. This paper compares and characterizes four smoothing methods for PV power fluctuations with BESS, providing useful information on which method would utilize a certain BESS best and improving overall system operation and reliability.

Article analysis:

The article provides a comprehensive overview of different ramp-rate control algorithms for PV with energy storage systems. It highlights the challenges faced by grid operators due to the short-term variability of solar irradiance and the need for power ramp-rate limitation measures. The article discusses various methods for smoothing PV power fluctuations, including moving average, exponential moving average, low-pass filter, and second-order low-pass filter.

However, the article has some potential biases and limitations. Firstly, it only focuses on filter type methods and does not consider other approaches such as gradient-based control. Secondly, it does not provide a detailed comparison of the performance of each method in terms of their effectiveness in limiting PV power ramp rates. Thirdly, it does not explore the impact of different battery technologies on the performance of each method.

Moreover, the article lacks evidence to support some claims made regarding the superiority of certain methods over others. For example, it claims that second-order low-pass filters have superior performance compared to first-order filters without providing any empirical evidence to support this claim.

Additionally, while the article briefly mentions some inherent possibilities presented by battery energy storage systems beyond PV power fluctuation smoothing, it does not provide a comprehensive analysis of these possibilities or their potential benefits.

Overall, while the article provides useful insights into different ramp-rate control algorithms for PV with energy storage systems, its limitations and potential biases should be taken into consideration when interpreting its findings.