1. Full enfranchisement is not a necessary condition for democracy, as seen in the anti-democratic views of Socrates and Plato.
2. Dan Kahan's Cultural Cognition Theory explains how experts can view the same facts and form consistently different conclusions based on cultural values.
3. A deliberative procedure proposed by Robin Gregory could generate science-based policies through structured and value-focused deliberation with a cross-section of the community, appealing to Socrates' beliefs in educated decision-making while maintaining community values.
The article "Socrates and the Vote" by Josh Pyle is a review of Dan M. Kahan's "Fear of Democracy" and Cultural Cognition Theory. The article raises the question of whether full enfranchisement is a good thing, and why it has become taboo in the United States to even mention this topic. The author argues that while full enfranchisement seems like a necessary condition for democracy, it is not.
The article draws on Plato's Republic to argue that Socrates was anti-democratic and believed that only people educated on the issues should be allowed to vote. The author uses this argument to suggest that democracy is only as effective as the education system that surrounds it. This leads to a discussion of Kahan's model of Cultural Cognition, which posits that culture is prior to facts in societal disputes over risk.
While the article raises some interesting points about the role of education in democracy and the importance of cultural factors in shaping risk perceptions, it suffers from several biases and limitations. First, the article presents a one-sided view of Socrates' views on democracy without acknowledging other perspectives or counterarguments. Second, the article relies heavily on Kahan's model of Cultural Cognition without exploring alternative models or evidence that might challenge its assumptions.
Third, the article makes unsupported claims about the effectiveness of expert regulators and deliberative procedures aimed at generating science-based policies. While these approaches may have some benefits, there is also evidence to suggest that they can be subject to bias, manipulation, and capture by powerful interests.
Fourth, the article overlooks important considerations such as power differentials within society, structural inequalities, and historical legacies that shape people's access to education and political participation. These factors can have significant impacts on people's ability to make informed decisions about risks and participate meaningfully in democratic processes.
Finally, while the article acknowledges some potential risks associated with full enfranchisement, it does not fully explore the potential benefits or address the ethical and moral implications of denying people the right to vote based on their criminal record or mental capacity.
Overall, while the article raises some interesting questions and ideas, it suffers from several biases and limitations that undermine its credibility and objectivity. To provide a more balanced and nuanced analysis of these issues, future research should consider alternative perspectives, evidence, and counterarguments, as well as broader social, political, and historical contexts.