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Article summary:

1. Kovacs memory effect: The article discusses the Kovacs memory effect, which describes the behavior of glasses during isothermal annealing experiments. Unlike the common monotonic relaxation process, the enthalpy and volume of a preannealed glass first increase before decreasing towards equilibrium.

2. Activation entropy (S∗): The study focuses on a model Au-based metallic glass and determines the activation entropy (S∗) during isothermal annealing using absolute reaction rate theory. It is observed that the memory effect only appears when the second-annealing process has a large S∗.

3. Key factor for memory effect: The results suggest that a large value of S∗ is a key requirement for observing the memory effect in glasses. This finding provides a useful perspective for understanding the memory effect in both thermal and athermal systems.

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