1. The Journal of Democracy was launched in 1990 during a period of global democratic expansion, but even then scholars were concerned about the shallow nature of many democratic regimes.
2. Beginning in 2006, the world entered a period of global democratic recession that has gathered considerable momentum in recent years, with democracy facing its most daunting test in decades.
3. Good governance is key to democracy's long-term prospects, and democracies do not rise or fall in a global vacuum - the policies and actions of powerful democracies shape the global fate of freedom.
The article "Democracy's Arc: From Resurgent to Imperiled" by Larry Diamond in the Journal of Democracy provides a historical overview of the rise and fall of democracy around the world. The author highlights the period of democratic expansion in the 1990s, which saw many countries transition to democracy, but also notes concerns about the shallow nature of some democracies. The article then discusses the current global democratic recession, with authoritarian powers like China and Russia on the rise and growing doubts about democracy's efficacy.
Overall, the article provides a well-researched and informative analysis of democracy's trajectory over time. However, there are some potential biases and limitations to consider. For example, while the author acknowledges concerns about democratic shallowness in some countries, he does not delve into deeper critiques of liberal democracy as a system that perpetuates inequality and fails to address systemic issues like economic injustice.
Additionally, while the article notes the role of Western support for democratic transitions during the third wave, it does not fully explore how Western intervention has often been motivated by self-interest rather than a genuine commitment to democracy. This could be seen as a bias towards Western perspectives on democracy.
The article also presents a somewhat one-sided view of authoritarian regimes as inherently opposed to democracy, without fully exploring alternative perspectives or counterarguments. While it is true that many authoritarian leaders have undermined democratic institutions and norms, there are also arguments that certain forms of authoritarianism can be more effective at achieving economic development or stability in certain contexts.
Finally, while the article notes potential risks to democracy such as declining social capital and political decay in Western democracies, it does not fully explore potential solutions or ways to strengthen democratic institutions. This could be seen as a limitation in terms of providing actionable insights for policymakers or activists working towards promoting democracy around the world.
In conclusion, while "Democracy's Arc: From Resurgent to Imperiled" provides valuable insights into the history and current state of democracy, it is important to consider potential biases and limitations in its analysis.