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1. eCIS (extracellular contractile injection systems) are present in many strains of bacteria and are structurally similar to phage tails. They consist of a long tube attached to a baseplate and are composed of proteins similar to those found in phages.

2. eCIS have been found to mediate interactions between bacterial and eukaryotic cells, leading to cell death in certain cases. For example, Serratia and Photorhabdus species release eCIS structures that kill insect cells through the injection of insecticidal toxins.

3. Streptomyces coelicolor, a bacterium known for its complex developmental program, encodes an eCIS-encoding region. The researchers hypothesized that eCIS may play a fundamental role in the developmental program of Streptomyces bacteria and conducted experiments to investigate this hypothesis.

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