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1. Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are promising candidates for next-generation battery systems due to their excellent theoretical specific capacity and ultra-high energy density, but they face challenges such as large volume change during charge-discharge process and poor conductivity of sulfur.

2. Conductive microporous/mesoporous carbon is used as sulfur hosts to increase contact areas with insulating sulfur/Li2S and accommodate the sulfur volume change in the electrochemical reaction. Hierarchically porous carbon with abundant micropores/mesopores and interconnected macropores can further boost overall performance of Li-S batteries.

3. Single atoms with monodisperse transition-metal centers possess a theoretical 100% utilization efficiency, unsaturated metal species, and special electronic structure, making them a promising solution to suppress the shuttle effect of intermediate lithium polysulfide (LiPS) in Li-S batteries.

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