1. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been found to play a role in the modulation of pain and inflammation via the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, and a subset of nAChRs containing α7, α9, and/or α10 subunits are involved in this process.
2. Non-ionic signaling mechanisms via nAChRs have been demonstrated in immune cells, and endogenous ligands other than acetylcholine and choline can activate the signaling pathways where nAChRs are expressed.
3. Novel ligands targeting nAChRs are being developed as potential therapeutics for pain and inflammation, including α-conotoxin RgIA for chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain.