1. The defining challenge of the 21st century will be population bust and old age, not climate change.
2. China's population has declined for the first time since the Great Leap Forward, with its birthrate hitting an all-time low in 2022.
3. Five rules are proposed to help countries navigate this new era of demographic decline: redistribution from old to young, focus on implementation and adoption of new technologies, understanding the limits of ground warfare due to population constraints, recognizing the importance of youth and vitality within societies, and preparing for the African diaspora's impact on global transformation.
The article is written by Ross Douthat, a New York Times opinion writer who is well-known for his conservative views. The article presents a one-sided view that focuses solely on population decline as the defining challenge of the 21st century without considering other potential challenges such as climate change or economic inequality. The article also fails to explore counterarguments or present both sides equally; instead it presents a biased view that favors Douthat’s own opinions and beliefs. Additionally, there is no evidence provided to support some of Douthat’s claims such as his assertion that “over the last 15 years, some of the worst-case scenarios for climate change have become less likely than before” or his suggestion that “the balance between successful assimilation on one hand and destabilization and backlash on the other will help decide whether the age of demographic decline ends in revitalization or collapse”. Furthermore, while Douthat does provide five rules for navigating this new era of demographic decline, he fails to consider any potential risks associated with these rules or how they might be implemented in practice. As such, this article should be read with caution as it presents a biased view that lacks evidence and fails to consider potential risks associated with its proposed solutions.