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Article summary:

1. Earthquakes pose a significant threat to the safety of high-speed railway bridges (HRBs), and accurate assessment of damage is crucial for both the bridge structure and train safety.

2. Existing methods for assessing HRB damage have focused on individual components such as piers and bearings, but recent research has developed track-bridge integral models that consider the entire system's seismic performance.

3. Defining damage indicators for track interlayer connecting components remains challenging due to a lack of actual seismic damage data, and current empirical methods may not fully consider the impact of deformation on train safety. Further discussion is needed to establish more accurate damage critical values for these components.

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