1. Bordin (1979) defines the therapeutic alliance as consisting of three processes: consensual validation of psychotherapy goals, joint definition of tasks to be accomplished, and establishment of an emotional bond.
2. Other theorists such as Sterba (1934), Menninger (1958), Zetzel (1956), and Greenson (1967) have contributed to the understanding of the therapeutic alliance by emphasizing different aspects such as cooperation, contracts, real relationships, and power dynamics.
3. Luborsky (1976) further developed this concept by distinguishing between two types of alliances: type 1 which is centered around the patient's needs and type 2 which focuses on collaborative work towards a common goal.
The article provides a comprehensive overview of the concept of therapeutic alliance from its historical roots to its current understanding. The article is well-researched and cites multiple sources from various authors in order to support its claims. The article also provides a balanced view on the topic by presenting both sides equally and exploring counterarguments where necessary. However, there are some potential biases that should be noted. For example, some authors may be more heavily cited than others or certain points may be emphasized over others due to personal bias or preference. Additionally, some claims made in the article may not be supported by sufficient evidence or research data which could lead to inaccurate conclusions being drawn from the article. In conclusion, while this article is generally reliable and trustworthy, it is important to note that there may be potential biases present that should be taken into consideration when reading it.